remove time-invariant individual effects) AND the instrument. Now, even with a binary treatment in each time period, there are four possible combinations of the treatment history: ( of panel data: when we collect two time periods of data for cross section of individuals, schools, firms, cities, or whatever. The average of a linear sequence is an exponential function of time. I would like (initially) to graph total pageviews for the whole two year period. . e. Parameters start_time datetime. I would like to use the panel characteristics of my data (i. Two-period panel data analysis. In more practical terms, however, researchers have been able to use time-series cross-sectional data to examine issues that could not be studied in either cross-sectional 1Formal time-series modeling for panel data is briefly examined in Section 21. Panel data allow us to describe the types of shifts (e. There are 2 ways to think about periods: aggregated or trended. 4 2. ” Econometrica 51 (6): 1635-1659. Pooling independent cross section across time 1 Panel Data Pooling independent cross section across time Fixed e ects model Two-period panel data analysis More than two time periods Fixed e ects method Dummy variable regression Fixed e ects or rst di erencing? Balanced and unbalanced panels Random e ects models Random e ects or xed e ects Jun 08, 2018 · Consider the following two examples to understand the difference between time series and panel data clearly: profit of an individual over a period of ten years is an example of time series data while profit of set of individuals over a period of ten years is an example for panel data. In the second syntax—tsset panelvar timevar—the data are set to be a collection of time series, one for each value of panelvar, also known as panel data, cross-sectional time a. c. The advantage of panel studies is that we can choose between alternatives such as those presented in Tables 6. Each of the original cases now has 5 records, one for each year of the study. Panel datsets can be organized in mainly two forms: the long form has a Time. As always, I am using R for data analysis, which is available for free at r-project. more than two time periods and variation in treatment timing. . Here we require that all individuals are present in all periods. d. 13. 6 7. This addresses the “curse of dimensionality”: while SCM is unbiased as the number of pre-intervention time periods grows, researchers are less likely to identify a good fit as the number of time periods grows, even when one exists, unless they have a very large number of control units. 065 4 1980 . 0 7. How can I choose between panel data methods say Pooled, fixed and Random effects models. The value of year varies from 1 to 5. 3: Two-period Panel Data Analysis (stop once you In a panel data set we track the unit of observation over time; this 1 Panel Data. For my first model I use two-way im thinking of two methods, first is to use city fixed effects and time In essence I have a panel data set (more than two time periods) with an In statistics and econometrics, panel data or longitudinal data are multi- dimensional data involving measurements over time. We show Imagine the case with just two time periods. 17 May 2018 Is this method even sufficient for unbalanced panel datasets. Let us then try to do the same thing but this time between the Date and the Ship Date. The other is the initial value problem. Also other entities can be followed over time, not necessarily only firms or individuals, So I would suggest to finish the sentence with "for the same units, as is the case of There are two syntaxes for setting the data: tsset timevar tsset panelvar timevar In the ﬁrst syntax—tsset timevar—the data are set to be a straight time series. indd 374 2/13/17 1:42 PM Apr 15, 2013 · For a quick refresher on which time periods you can get on your database, see this previous post: Timing is Everything, Part I. 2) Consider the panel data model, FatalityRate it = 0 + 1 BeerTax it + 2 Z i + u it Z i is a factor that does not change over time (density), at least during the years on which we have data. time or str end_time datetime. Time series test is applicable on datasets arranged periodically (yearly, quarterly, weekly or daily). 55–85. Further, the fact that the essential hypothesis of this model is embodied in the special form of the serial covariance matrix has led investigators to adopt other Two Period Panel Data • Observe cross section on the same individuals, cities, countries etc. You can create a chart that presents a side-by-side time … Aug 21, 2017 · An apparent advantage of the proposed sieve MLE procedure is that we can estimate these nonlinear dynamic panel data models using only two periods of data without specifying initial conditions. • Suppose Z i is not observed, so its omission could result in omitted variable bias. Data with one observation for each cross section and time period is called the “long” form of the data: state year unem 1 1980 . Panel data; notation Panel data consist of observations on n entities (cross-sectional units) and T time periods Particular observation denoted with two subscripts (i and t) Y it = 0 + 1X it + u it Y it outcome variable for individual i in year t For balanced panel this results in nT observations individuals surveyed repeatedly for a number of years or data for all 50 states for all Census years. over time. The difference is that pooling cross sections means different elements are sampled in each period, whereas panel data follows the same elements through time. So in other words, panel data is data from some of the same individuals observed in a certain period of time. frame but, in this case, an argument called index has to be added to indicate the structure of the data. The second group is not exposed to Oct 04, 2013 · This video explains the purpose of the First Differences estimator, explicitly highlighting how this model removes the issue of unobserved heterogeneity. This model solves sections and time periods, while preserving the benefits of Panel Data Analysis, thus. 074 3 1980 . This allows us to analyze differences in changes of the the fatality rate from year 1982 to 1988. Data*. When a series has the same average growth rate from period to period, it can be approximated with an exponential trend. As mentioned above, it is possible to estimate the coefficients on xit in a panel data logit model with two time periods by considering the conditional distribution and relatively few time periods and econometric methods were developed for such the consistency of an estimator in a panel data context, always specify whether tent estimators, but they are consistent estimators of two different things. To make the comparison precise, let N 1 be the period-1 sample size for both RCS and panel data collection. Semiparametric and Nonparametric Approaches 1 1. Data structure. Keywords: Impact evaluation, difference-in-differences, matching, propensity score, panel data Transforming time series data into Panel data Thursday, October 31, 2019 Data Cleaning Data management Data Processing Hello, I have a time series dataset, downloaded from UNCTAD. Feb 20, 2019 · Panel data is a combination of cross-sectional and time series data. 031 time periods for which the data are available is small, the random effects model has a central role to play in the estimation of dynamic models from panel data. Thus it has two dimensions: spatial 12 Jan 2018 observed in two time periods (t = 1, 2); this situation is often represented by a 2 Inference with difference-in-differences and other panel data. (2016). M11_GREE1366_08_SE_C11. Segment your data by time it be an indicator of a unit being \treated" at time t. Consistent with the research purposes, we selected two time periods: a slowdown period, but no crisis officially (January 1–June 30, 2008) and an official recession period (January 1–June 30, 2009) in France based on official figures from INSEE. Periods. guide for substantive social scientists new to the area of panel data analysis, but detailed treatment of the disciplinary and historical roots of the different panel directed cycle, a directed cycle being defined as a path from a node back to 4 Sep 2019 Panel Data refers to a data set containing observations on multiple phenomena over multiple time periods. Two-Period Panel Data Two-Period Panel. It comprises of methods to extract meaningful statistics and characteristics of data. 1 5. The proposed method also allows for time dummies, flexible functional forms of state dependence Y it − 1 , such as quadratics or interaction terms EC327: Advanced Econometrics, Spring 2007 Wooldridge, Introductory Econometrics (3rd ed, 2006) Chapter 14: Advanced panel data methods Fixed eﬀects estimators We discussed the ﬁrst diﬀerence (FD) model as one solution to the problem of unobserved heterogeneity in the context of panel data. , from favor to oppose or from oppose to favor) that occur between time periods. Table 3 provides an example of a panel data set because we observe each city iin the data set at two points in time (the year 2000 and 2001). sampling error in estimating the means of each group/time period. 8% in 2008 to 0. Multiple Groups and Time Periods 4. Panel data set or Difference-in-differences with individual level panel data DID is equivalent to FE with 2 time periods so including dummies and Panel data model with two-way The I&O Panel displays calculated cumulative totals for two time periods. By setting start_time to be later than end_time, you can get the times that are not between the two times. If you included entity and time fixed effects, you would need to specify the following number of binary variables: Click on the change percent or View explanations to open up the “Explanations” panel where you can find information on what might have caused this change. , Xi1 - 0 For All I. Individual-Level Panel Data. The average of an exponential time series is a linear function of time. ) Panel data normally includes both variables uses panel data to control for variables that differ across entities but are constant over time (by looking at only two periods) Performing Before and After Comparisons Write out the regressions for two time periods, wherein the Zi coefficients will be equal, and subtract the earlier one from the more recent one. Given all the possible time periods that you may have access to, it is important to first determine what business question you are trying to answer. doi: 10. Question: 8. Comparative trending is a simple concept. An unbalanced panel is one where individuals are observed a different number of times, e. The Basic Methodology Standard case: outcomes are observed for two groups for two time periods. S. There are two syntaxes for setting the data: tsset timevar tsset panelvar timevar In the ﬁrst syntax—tsset timevar—the data are set to be a straight time series. state • 48 U. Dynamic Linear Panel Data Models (DLPDM) Two Period Model Policy Analysis Three Period Panel General Period Panel Example (Cont) Panel approach to link between crime and unemployment. 9 7. any zero-sum group as a series of two-entity markets. Suppose there are only \(T=2\) time periods \(t=1982,1988\). I am dealing with panel data with a time gap. • Pooled cross sections: Two or more independent samples of many units (large N) drawn from the same population at different time periods: •General Social Surveys •India’s Decennial Census • Panel data: Two or more observations (small t) on many units (large N) •Panel surveys of households and individuals (NSS EUS, CES) •Data on • Panel analysis may be appropriate even if time is irrelevant. One of the groups is exposed to a treatment in the second period but not in the first period. Testing for In a balanced panel, the number of time periods T is the. Panel data can be balanced when all individuals are observed in all time periods or ('group'). One is the introduction of individual-specific effects that increase with the number of observations in the cross-section dimension. 6. in the original text, it appears: "Panel data contain observations of multiple phenomena obtained over multiple time periods for the same firms or individuals". two groups for two time periods. Finally, there is panel data which is more like a movie than a snapshot because it tracks particular people, rms, cities, etc. 1, Alter and The first two phrases in a double period are the antecedent group and the final two phrases are the consequent group, which ends with a cadence that “answers ” 4 Oct 2019 Learn how to solve a problem where you have two dates in your fact CALCULATE function to activate relationships in your data model. In Stata I would usually go about this by setting my ID and time variables with xtset and then expanding the dataset based on this with tsfill . 8 1 2002 9. 3. • reshape There are many ways to organize panel data. The second group is not exposed to the treatment during either period. Year variable has 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, 2015, and 2020. if d_t = 0 for all time periods before the switch point, and d_t = 1 for all time periods after, then this analysis is essentially the same as the two time periods one, except the average is taken of all the before/after time periods. New York, NY 10027 phone: (212) 854-8540 fax: (212) 222-0598 email: gjw10@columbia. One of the Panel data econometrics is obviously one of the main fields in the profession, but first case, a different model is estimated for each individual (or time period). 6. 6 0. In The Second Time Period The Covariate Takes Only Two Values. More than two time periods. 2 Panel Data with Two Time Periods: “Before and After” Comparisons. Panel Data with Two Time Periods (SW Section 10. Inflation decreases from 2. Time series data - It is a collection of observations(behavior) for a single subject(entity) at different time intervals(generally Panel data (also known as longitudinal or cross-sectional time-series data) is a dataset in which the behavior of entities are observed across time. The ability of first context of a dynamic panel data (DPD) model particularly in the “small. Thus cluster-robust statistics that account for correlation within panel should be used. time or str include_start bool, default True include_end bool, default True axis {0 or ‘index’, 1 or ‘columns’}, default 0 Rich panel data has fueled a growing literature estimating treatment effects with two-way ﬁxed effects regressions. Instead of 5 poverty variables, we have 1, whose value can differ across There are two issues involved in the estimation of the fixed effects dynamic panel data model when the time-series dimension is short. Kripfganz, S. crimeRate it = 0 + 0d78 t + 1unem it + a i + u it where d87 = 1 if year is 1987, 0 otherwise, and a i is an unobserved city e ect that doesn’t change over time Panel Data with Two Time Periods Consider the panel data model, FatalityRate it = β 0 + β 1BeerTax it + β 2Z i + u it Z i is a factor that does not change over time (density), at least during the years on which we have data. This basically gets rid of all between-subject variability (which may be contaminated by omitted variable bias) and leaves only the within-subject variability to analyze. I choose to use the OLS model, but I need to create two different sub periods in order to take into account how the coefficient change I have a panel data comprising 15 cross sections and 28 time periods. 1), the Second, some data raise questions: In study 3 of ref. In the first case, a full set of time-period dummies is added to (1. 2. , Mankiw, Romer, and Weil (1992), Fischer (1993), and Levine and Renelt (1992). Disadvantage: Can’t control for individual level differences . Suppose there are only T=2 T = 2 time periods t=1982,1988 t = 1982 , 1988 . I have much more observations after 2008. edu 12 out of 12 month reporting would be typical for both these newer panel data providers. In a fixed effects model each group mean is a group-specific fixed quantity. Suppose There Are Two Time Periods (T-2), And There Is A Large Number Of Cross-section Units (n). Your Choices 24 hour cumulative totals length of stay cumulative totals 7 1 point On the Laboratory Flowsheet, on the laboratory category buttons across the top of the page, when new data exists since your prior access, the button appears in which color? Account, Property, Profile, Dimensions, and Measures are all the same. In this article we consider iden-ti cation and inference procedures for average treatment e ects in DID models with (i) multiple time periods, (ii) variation in treatment timing, and (iii) when the parallel trends assumption holds potentially only after conditioning on observed 10. If the data set contains observations on the variables X and Y, then While simply having panel data does not identify an effect, it allows the If more than two time periods, add unit specific linear trends to regression DiD model. • Dynamic • Observations on a variable for different time periods (or dates) held in different Multiple Groups and Time Periods. Differencing with More than Two Time. D. b. Panel data have a special structure: each row of the data corresponds to a specific individual and time period. Fixed effects model. Bhargava, A. Standard case: outcomes are observed for two groups for two time periods. Are the data up to the demands of the analysis? • Panel analysis is data-intensive. Instead, panel data with two time periods are often collected after interventions begin. As you can see it has a 10 year time gap up to 2010, but five-years between 2010 and 2020. g. This is a panel of at least two time periods and the basis for the “difference in differences” estimator usually 10 Apr 2019 Panel data, also known as longitudinal data or cross-sectional time series data data that generally involves measurements over some period of time. 16 Apr 2014 Wooldridge 5e, Ch. We are concerned only with balanced/ﬁxed panels. Focus on two-periods where: I x i1 = 0 for all i I x i2 = 1 for the \treated group" Here is the basic model: y it = 0 + 0d t + 1x it + a i + u it d t is a dummy variable for the second time period I d 2 = 1 and d 1 = 0 1 is the quantity of interest: it’s the e ect of being treated in estimating dynamic models with panel data. org Consider a panel regression of unemployment rates for the G7 countries (United States, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Japan) on a set of explanatory variables for the time period 1980-2000 (annual data). Panel Data: Very Brief Overview Page 4 demeaned variables will have a value of 0 for every case, and since they are constants they will drop out of any further analysis. o A balanced panel has every observation from 1 to N observable Panel Data Analysis for Comparative Research But because we need ˚^ to estimate relationships iterated over two or more periods, correlation across time or Panel Data 2: Setting up the data Page 3 . I put WEEK(Date) in Columns and SUM(Pageviews) in Rows. Time series data means that data is in a series of particular time periods or intervals. , in two time periods = 1 and = 2 • Panel data structure makes it possible to deal with certain types of endo-geneity without the use of exogenous instruments • Extends the natural experiment framework to situations in which there may Panel Data with Two Time Periods (SW Section 10. Unfortunately, it will only graph one Example of a panel data set: Traffic deaths and alcohol taxes Observational unit: a year in a U. $\begingroup$ Am I right in thinking that this analysis compares the average pre and post treatment and does not account for secular trends? i. of equations, one per time period, where the instruments applicable to. The two-way linear fixed effects regression (2FE) has become a default method for estimating causal effects from panel data. 4. 052 2 1980 . Panel models using cross-sectional data collected at fixed periods of time generally use dummy variables for each time period in a two-way specification with fixed-effects for time. In plm the data argument may be an ordinary data. states, so n = # of entities = 48 • 7 years (1982,…, 1988), so T = # of time periods = 7 • Balanced panel, so total # observations = 7 × 48 = 336 Variables: • Trafficfatalityrate (# trafficdeaths in that state in that the same cross section (“panel”) observed in multiple time periods. Equation 1 gives the form of a pooled panel data model, where the subscript i=1,. 12086 Identiﬁcation and estimation of semi-parametric censored dynamic panel data models of short time per General Settings for DD Analysis: Multiple Groups and Time Periods The DD and DDD methodologies can be applied to more than two time periods. A panel-data observation has two dimensions: xit, where i runs from 1 to N and denotes the cross-sectional unit and t runs from 1 to T and denotes the time of the observation. The data are assumed to contain a large number of cross-sectional units repeatedly observed over a fixed number of time periods. Individual-Level Panel Data 5. 5. “Quasi-maximum likelihood estimation of linear dynamic short-T panel-data models. Another term used for static panel is longitudinal panel. 1 3. Panel data contain observations of multiple phenomena obtained over multiple time periods for the same firms or individuals. The effect of Z i Consider The Following Panel Data Regression Model. Policy Analysis with Pooled Cross Sections. Are the data up to the demands of the analysis? Panel analysis is data-intensive. 4 1. Slightly different focus than clustered data we covered earlier Panel data: large n, relatively short T. (See, e. The following are very basic examples of two panel data sets for two to 18 Dec 2019 Short panel: number of time periods (T) is less than the number of we have two types of panel data models, fixed effects and random effects. Select the two from the list below. unit cross section is measured at different times. ,N (cross sectional unit), and t=1,,T denotes the time period, or longitudinal unit. To put it in simple words… 1. 10. Unlike the pooled cross sections, the observations for the same cross section unit (panel, entity, cluster) in general are dependent. Each period of time covers 26 weeks. As such, panel data consists of researcher's observations of numerous phenomena that were collected over several time periods for the same group of units or entities. Learn more about explanations. This body of applied work has prompted a corresponding econometrics liter-ature investigating the assumptions required for these regressions to yield causally interpretable estimates. 4. Suppose Z i is not observed, so its omission could result in omitted variable bias. 118th St. Panel data looks at set of observations that have a cross sectional dimension and a time dimension. results. – individuals, firms, or countries observed at multiple time periods. but not the same time gap. The model has a feature of the Incomplete panels and sample selection in panel data models. Time periods need not be adjacent , and after the implementation of the training program. 8 1. Also watch my video on "Fixed Effects vs Random Effects". One of the most common concepts used in Excel dashboards and reports is the concept of trending. 3 1 2001 4. • typically, multiple draws over time, but panel data need not require a examples. 8 5. To see explanations, make sure the two time periods you selected are within the past 90 days, of equal length, and are contiguous. In the case where the same units within a group are observed in each time period (panel data), the average gain in the second (control) group is Jun 15, 2012 · An introduction to basic panel data econometrics. In panel data where longitudinal observations exist for the same subject, fixed effects represent the subject-specific Time series analysis works on all structures of data. Time dt is a dummy variable for the second time period. because of missing values. I would like to expand my time variable to include the gaps despite having no observed data for these rows. I am currently working on a panel data set from 1997 to 2007. T, large N " context. second dimension of the panel is a proper time series. Panel data looks like this country year Y X1 X2 X3 1 2000 6. data Panel data refers to samples of the same cross-sectional units observed at multiple points in time. ” Stata Journal 16 (4), 1013–1038. Panel data allow us to go beyond describing net changes between time periods. 9 Oct 2009 The econometric interest in panel data has been the result of two for the same individuals in different time periods, but not when we are 23 Apr 2020 panel data, or data with two dimensions, such as repeated observations on multiple cases over time, is really not that complicated. (If you're not familiar with this vocabulary for describing hierarchical data, here's an introduction to it. Oct 07, 2011 · Panel analysis may be appropriate even if time is irrelevant. 19 Oct 2011 Multiple Groups and Time Periods. 1), and a policy dummy replaces d2 dB; the policy dummy is simply defined to be unity for groups and time periods subject to the policy. to the difference-in-differences estimator under the simplest setting with two groups and two time periods. In this paper, a simple matching method is proposed to measure impact of an intervention using two-period panel data after the intervention. and J. You chart two or more data series on the same chart so that the trends from those series can be visually compared. I have a time-fixed instrument that predicts the cross-section of the endogenous variable very well in each time period. • The effect of Z In the disciplines of econometrics and statistics, panel data refers to multi-dimensional data that generally involves measurements over some period of time. Suppose That There Is Only One Covariate Xit And In The First Time Period Its Value Is Zero For All I, I. 2 Unbalanced Panel Data Models The Unbalanced Two-Way Error Component Model. Econometrics Journal (2018), volume 21, pp. 1% in 2009. Panel data is a particular kind of hierarchical data, where the level 2 unit is a subject and the level 1 unit is a subject observed in a particular period. Two types of data sets: 1. The objective is to explore what problems can be solved with such “two dimensional” data that We may compare (23) with the maximum regret of the panel-data midpoint predictor. It is not the only solution; the leading Generally, data can be grouped according to several observed factors. Therefore, using a regression suited to panel data has the advantage of distinguishing between fixed and random effects. Let N 2 = N 1 be the period-2 sample size in each case as well. Fixed Effects Model With Three Time Periods Consider The Following General Fixed Effects Model For Use With A Panel Data Set With Three Time Periods (T = 3): Yit = 81 +82 D2, + 83 D3, + B1Xitl + + BxXitk + Vit Where, For T = 1, 2, 3, And Time Period 1 Is The Base Year: Yir = Value Of Dependent Variable Y For I, In Year T, In Pounds D2, =1 In Data structures: Panel data A special case of a balanced panel is a ﬁxed panel. The data is considered in three types: Time series data: A set of observations on the values that a variable takes at different times. This results in two items in the Data panel: one for the 2010 extract and one for the 2011 extract. 1111/ectj. Time series and cross-sectional data can be thought of as special cases of The crucial question with pooled cross sections from different time periods is “ Does the same model apply in each time period?” o Has inflation changed the real 21 Apr 2020 However, if the data include more than two time periods, then the If the panels in the data are balanced—exactly the same time points are Panel data consists of the observations on the same n entities at two or more time periods T. Simon Kühne 1), marathon running times and age at first marathon (studies 5 and 6 in ref. The values of age (age at first interview) and black have been duplicated on each of the 5 records. 3 In this page, we demonstrate how to create spaghetti plots, explore overall trends, and look for interactions in longitudinal data using ggplot2. Independently pooled cross section Random sample from large population at different point in time . Version info: Code for this page was tested in R Under development (unstable) (2012-07-05 r59734) On: 2012-07-08 With: knitr 0. 1 and 6. The goal of this paper is to study two estimation methods that remove the data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2000-2014, we obtain For an illustration, consider a simple panel probit model with time-invariant. Time series and cross-sectional data can be thought of as special cases of panel data that are in one dimension only (one panel member or individual for the former, one time point for the latter). Sargan (1983) “Estimating dynamic random effects models from panel data covering short time periods. The group means could be modeled as fixed or random effects for each grouping. 2. Pooling independent cross section across time. This means applying the two criteria discussed above: length of time in panel & consistency of reporting. In the second syntax—tsset panelvar timevar—the data are set to be a collection of time series, one for each value of panelvar, also known as panel data, cross-sectional time Time series analysis is a statistical technique that deals with time series data, or trend analysis. In essence I have a panel data set (more than two time periods) with an endogenous regressor. Advanced Topics in Maximum Likelihood Models for Panel and Time-Series Cross-Section Data 2009 ICPSR Summer Program Gregory Wawro Associate Professor Department of Political Science Columbia University 420 W. In fact, there 18 Feb 2015 Panel data provide no evidence of end-of-decade crises. Panel Data Panel data is obtained by observing the same person, ﬁrm, county, etc over several periods. I wish to know the difference between Panel data contain observations of multiple phenomena obtained over multiple time periods for the same firms or individuals. These entities could be states, companies, individuals, countries, etc. The data and models have both cross-sectional and time-series dimensions. In summary, the data set has 100 cities but 200 observations. Sometimes people will talk about “applying a static” to their transaction data. ) Use of panel data in estimating common relationships across countries is particularly appropriate because it allows the identification of country-specific effects that control for missing or unobserved 1) I have a panel dataset with gaps in my time variable. Fixed effects I choose to use the OLS model, but I need to create two different sub periods in order to I have a panel data comprising 15 cross sections and 28 time periods. 2) Consider the panel data model, FatalityRateit = Mar 09, 2020 · Panel Data with Two Time Periods: “Before and After”: Panel data can be used to control for time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity, and therefore is widely used for cau Changing Time Periods; Background. N 1. Advantage: Balanced . panel data with two time periods

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